The branch of mathematics in which we deal with the collection, organization and interpretation of the data is known as statistics. The process of summarizing and organizing the data in an easy to understand manner is known as descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics is different from the inferential statistics in various ways. We can use it to describe the data. In the descriptive statistics, we have to describe the data just within the sample. It means that we don’t need to describe the data based on probability theory. In the descriptive statistics, we will have to study the characteristics of the response. While studying the characteristics of response, we have to study average of variables. As told by a PhD dissertation writing service that in some cases, we have to find out the relation between different variables.
Types Of Descriptive Statistics:
We divide the descriptive statistics into three types. In the first type of descriptive statistics, we will have to study distribution concerns of the frequency of all the values. In the second type, we will have to find the average of all the values based on the central tendency concerns. The third type of descriptive statistics is relevant to the variability of the values.
- Frequency Distribution:
In the frequency distribution, we have to arrange the data in the form of values or scores. After that, you will have to summarize the frequency of all the values in the form of graphs or tables. While finding the frequency distribution, we will have to find the values of variables in the form of numbers or percentages.
- The Measure Of Central Tendency:
The process of measuring the centre or average of the data set is known as a measure of central tendency. There are three ways to measure the centre or average of the data set. These three ways are mean, mode and median. Here, we will discuss them one by one. To find the mean of a data set, we have to arrange all the numbers either by using ascending order or descending order. After that, we have to find the sum of all the values. After finding the sum of all the values, we will have to divide it with the total number of values. It will give us the mean of the data set.
To find out the median of the data set, we have to arrange the data set in the ascending order. If we have an odd number of values, its central value will be its median. On the other hand, to find out the median of the even numbers, we have to use another technique. We have to take two values from the centre. After taking these values, we have to find their average. The average of these values will give us the median. To find the mode of the data, we will have to find the most repeating value. There can be no mode of a data set. In some cases, there can be two or more than two modes.
- Measures of Variability:
To find the spreading out the response value, we will have to use the measure of variability. We can use three different ways to show different aspects of spread. The first way is known as the range. With the help of range, you can easily determine how far away a specific value from the extreme response. To find out the range, we will have to subtract the lowest value from the extreme value. The second type is known as standard deviation. To find the standard deviation, we have to find the average amount of variability in the data set. After finding standard deviation, you can get an idea of how far away a specific value lies from the mean value. At last, we have to find the variance. The variance will give us the average of the squared deviations.
Univariate Descriptive Statistics:
The main focus of this kind of descriptive statistics is only on one variable. By using this form of descriptive statistics, we can understand the importance of examining the data from each variable. To calculate these values, you can use various programs. The most important programs to calculate these values are SRSS and Excel.
Bivariate Descriptive Statistics:
Sometimes, you will have to study the two variables at a time. Under such a situation, you can use bivariate descriptive statistics. If they have to study more than two variables at a time, they can use multivariate descriptive statistics. In these forms of descriptive statistics, the students have to study the frequency and variability of the given variables. After that, you will have to measure the central tendency of the two variables.